The broad dimensions of the model give insight into the strengths and weakness of individuals. These “strengths” and “weaknesses” are more appropriately referred to as “highly developed,” “developed” and “under developed.”
- Well developed is considered above average ability.
- Developed is seen as average for a particular group.
- Under developed is viewed as below average abilities.
Individual’s intellectual abilities can be understood in terms of the board dimensions and also the individual composite abilities. The broad, general dimensions relate to the general intellectual development of people. However, these general abilities should never see as “fixed” because they are not, but rather understood as being underdeveloped. Each of them can be developed with the right type of programing for enhancing them. Years of experience in working with this model have more than demonstrated to us that intellectual abilities can be greatly improved over time.
Interpretation of the Operations Abilities
Operations can be defined as the different types of mental or intellectual activity that individuals use in their thinking processes. There are five different kinds of Operations.
Cognition is defined as immediate discovery, awareness, perception of information in various forms. Cognition involves all types of sensory input–visual, auditory, tactile, smell and taste. It is the foundation ability for comprehending, recognizing and assimilating information. Thus, it is a highly valued ability in the school environment.
Individuals with high Cognition abilities are able to rapidly comprehend, recognize and assimilate information. They do not need much repetition or exposure to material to learn it. They like lessons and explanations to move quickly and are often ahead of the teacher in seeing where things are going. They may show irritation and impatience with slower cognizers and can’t see why everyone isn’t as fast as they are.
Individuals weak in Cognition no matter how high their IQ scores, will need repetitive explanations to catch on to new material. Low Cognition scores may indicate weakness in processing sensory information-visual, auditory, kinesthetic. They may need information presented in several ways and through more than one modality to aide their comprehension. They will ask many questions about how to do things and show confusion and uncertainty with new materials.
Memory is the ability to recall previously comprehended.material. Recall of information takes place in response to cues similar to those with which the material was learned. The importance of memory as an intellectual ability, especially in the education process, cannot be overestimated. It is a primary ability tapped in most assessments of achievement.
High Memory ability in students gives them ready access to the material they have previously learned. They have what can be called a very efficient mental filing system. They are able to retrieve facts and information quickly and usually perform very well on tests that require high recall of information.
Individuals who are weak in Memory will have difficulty recalling previously learned or comprehended material. Low-memory students need much practice and repetition before they are able to store and retrieve information successfully.
Evaluation is the ability to make judgments or to reach decisions. It includes making sound judgments using foresight and effective planning. Academically, evaluation abilities are used when activities require the selection of a correct procedure, operation or principle or when analysis is required to identity specific characteristics
Individual high in Evaluation tend to make good judgments and decisions. They are able to analyze material and select the best answer or solution. They have high confidence and trust in themselves. This ability and their confidence often makes them natural leaders among their peers.
Individuals who are weak in Evaluation abilities tend to make wrong decisions and are poor planners. They may seem immature and exhibit poor or inappropriate social behavior. They lack the skills to make sound judgments using foresight and effective planning. Academically they will have difficulty selecting the correct procedure, operation or principle to apply and they may have problems when analysis is needed to identify specified characteristics.
Convergent Production is the ability to solve problems or follow rules to generate information from given information to find a specified answer or response. It is considered expressive intelligence whereas Cognition is considered receptive intelligence. Convergent Production is the application of learned information. It is the primary ability utilized in schools. As such it is highly related to academic achievement. It includes the ability to arrive at a correct solution in math, express ideas in written and verbal forms, apply generalizations and conduct research projects.
High Convergent Production ability shows students who are skilled at problem solving in the academic environment. They are able to arrive at correct solutions in arithmetic and mathematics, adept in written and verbal skills, can apply generalizations and conduct research projects. They are excellent students and scholars and enjoy research and related work.
Students weak in Convergent Production may have poor work skills and show a reluctance to stick with tedious subject matter. They will have difficulty arriving at a correct solution in arithmetic, expressing ideas in written and/or verbal form, applying generalizations and conducting research projects. They often need external motivation to do school work.
Divergent Production is the generation of information where the emphasis is on variety and quality of output. Characteristics of Divergent Production are fluency, flexibility and originality. While it is not creativity alone it is an essential element to generate new and creative approaches to finding new solutions or new approaches in solving problems.
Students who are strong in Divergent Production are creative and dislike routine. They often have high energy levels and are single-minded when working on projects of interest. They may refuse to work in fields they dislike or for teachers they consider unfair. They often are highly selective regarding friends. They are flexible and are impatient with adults who are inflexible or intolerant of alternate work styles.
Students weak in Divergent Production may not be fluent in generating new and creative ideas; they may not be very sensitive and may have low self concepts. They also may exhibit high levels of anxiety. Weaknesses in Divergent Production will make students inflexible and conventional.